Cast geometry to another type: either simplify, or cast explicitly

## Usage

# S3 method for MULTIPOLYGON
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for MULTILINESTRING
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for MULTIPOINT
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for POLYGON
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for LINESTRING
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for POINT
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for CIRCULARSTRING
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for MULTISURFACE
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for COMPOUNDCURVE
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for MULTICURVE
st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for CURVE
st_cast(x, to, ...)

st_cast(x, to, ...)

# S3 method for sfc
st_cast(x, to, ..., ids = seq_along(x), group_or_split = TRUE)

# S3 method for sf
st_cast(x, to, ..., warn = TRUE, do_split = TRUE)

# S3 method for sfc_CIRCULARSTRING
st_cast(x, to, ...)

## Arguments

x

object of class sfg, sfc or sf

to

character; target type, if missing, simplification is tried; when x is of type sfg (i.e., a single geometry) then to needs to be specified.

...

ignored

ids

integer vector, denoting how geometries should be grouped (default: no grouping)

group_or_split

logical; if TRUE, group or split geometries; if FALSE, carry out a 1-1 per-geometry conversion.

warn

logical; if TRUE, warn if attributes are assigned to sub-geometries

do_split

logical; if TRUE, allow splitting of geometries in sub-geometries

## Value

object of class to if successful, or unmodified object if unsuccessful. If information gets lost while type casting, a warning is raised.

In case to is missing, st_cast.sfc will coerce combinations of "POINT" and "MULTIPOINT", "LINESTRING" and "MULTILINESTRING", "POLYGON" and "MULTIPOLYGON" into their "MULTI..." form, or in case all geometries are "GEOMETRYCOLLECTION" will return a list of all the contents of the "GEOMETRYCOLLECTION" objects, or else do nothing. In case to is specified, if to is "GEOMETRY", geometries are not converted, else, st_cast will try to coerce all elements into to; ids may be specified to group e.g. "POINT" objects into a "MULTIPOINT", if not specified no grouping takes place. If e.g. a "sfc_MULTIPOINT" is cast to a "sfc_POINT", the objects are split, so no information gets lost, unless group_or_split is FALSE.

## Details

When converting a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION to COMPOUNDCURVE, MULTISURFACE or CURVEPOLYGON, the user is responsible for the validity of the resulting object: no checks are being carried out by the software.

When converting mixed, GEOMETRY sets, it may help to first convert to the MULTI-type, see examples

the st_cast method for sf objects can only split geometries, e.g. cast MULTIPOINT into multiple POINT features. In case of splitting, attributes are repeated and a warning is issued when non-constant attributes are assigned to sub-geometries. To merge feature geometries and attribute values, use aggregate or summarise.

## Examples

# example(st_read)
#> Reading layer nc' from data source
#>   /home/runner/work/_temp/Library/sf/shape/nc.shp' using driver ESRI Shapefile'
#> Simple feature collection with 100 features and 14 fields
#> Geometry type: MULTIPOLYGON
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: -84.32385 ymin: 33.88199 xmax: -75.45698 ymax: 36.58965
mpl <- st_geometry(nc)[[4]]
#st_cast(x) ## error 'argument "to" is missing, with no default'
cast_all <- function(xg) {
lapply(c("MULTIPOLYGON", "MULTILINESTRING", "MULTIPOINT", "POLYGON", "LINESTRING", "POINT"),
function(x) st_cast(xg, x))
}
st_sfc(cast_all(mpl))
#> Warning: polygon from first part only
#> Warning: line from first ring only
#> Warning: point from first coordinate only
#> Geometry set for 6 features
#> Geometry type: GEOMETRY
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: -76.33025 ymin: 36.07282 xmax: -75.77316 ymax: 36.55716
#> CRS:           NA
#> First 5 geometries:
#> MULTIPOLYGON (((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36...
#> MULTILINESTRING ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 ...
#> MULTIPOINT ((-76.00897 36.3196), (-76.01735 36....
#> POLYGON ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.33773...
#> LINESTRING (-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.337...
## no closing coordinates should remain for multipoint
any(duplicated(unclass(st_cast(mpl, "MULTIPOINT"))))  ## should be FALSE
#> [1] FALSE
## number of duplicated coordinates in the linestrings should equal the number of polygon rings
## (... in this case, won't always be true)
sum(duplicated(do.call(rbind, unclass(st_cast(mpl, "MULTILINESTRING"))))
) == sum(unlist(lapply(mpl, length)))  ## should be TRUE
#> [1] TRUE

p1 <- structure(c(0, 1, 3, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 2, 4, 4, 0), .Dim = c(6L, 2L))
p2 <- structure(c(1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 1), .Dim = c(4L, 2L))
st_polygon(list(p1, p2))
#> POLYGON ((0 0, 1 0, 3 2, 2 4, 1 4, 0 0), (1 1, 1 2, 2 2, 1 1))
mls <- st_cast(st_geometry(nc)[[4]], "MULTILINESTRING")
st_sfc(cast_all(mls))
#> Warning: keeping first linestring only
#> Warning: keeping first coordinate only
#> Geometry set for 6 features
#> Geometry type: GEOMETRY
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: -76.33025 ymin: 36.07282 xmax: -75.77316 ymax: 36.55716
#> CRS:           NA
#> First 5 geometries:
#> MULTIPOLYGON (((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36...
#> MULTILINESTRING ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 ...
#> MULTIPOINT ((-76.00897 36.3196), (-76.01735 36....
#> POLYGON ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.33773...
#> LINESTRING (-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.337...
mpt <- st_cast(st_geometry(nc)[[4]], "MULTIPOINT")
st_sfc(cast_all(mpt))
#> Warning: point from first coordinate only
#> Geometry set for 6 features
#> Geometry type: GEOMETRY
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: -76.33025 ymin: 36.07282 xmax: -75.77316 ymax: 36.55716
#> CRS:           NA
#> First 5 geometries:
#> MULTIPOLYGON (((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36...
#> MULTILINESTRING ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 ...
#> MULTIPOINT ((-76.00897 36.3196), (-76.01735 36....
#> POLYGON ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.33773...
#> LINESTRING (-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.337...
pl <- st_cast(st_geometry(nc)[[4]], "POLYGON")
#> Warning: polygon from first part only
st_sfc(cast_all(pl))
#> Warning: point from first coordinate only
#> Geometry set for 6 features
#> Geometry type: GEOMETRY
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: -76.33025 ymin: 36.07282 xmax: -75.79885 ymax: 36.55716
#> CRS:           NA
#> First 5 geometries:
#> MULTIPOLYGON (((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36...
#> MULTILINESTRING ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 ...
#> MULTIPOINT ((-76.00897 36.3196), (-76.01735 36....
#> POLYGON ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.33773...
#> LINESTRING (-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.337...
ls <- st_cast(st_geometry(nc)[[4]], "LINESTRING")
#> Warning: line from first ring only
st_sfc(cast_all(ls))
#> Warning: point from first coordinate only
#> Geometry set for 6 features
#> Geometry type: GEOMETRY
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: -76.33025 ymin: 36.07282 xmax: -75.79885 ymax: 36.55716
#> CRS:           NA
#> First 5 geometries:
#> MULTIPOLYGON (((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36...
#> MULTILINESTRING ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 ...
#> MULTIPOINT ((-76.00897 36.3196), (-76.01735 36....
#> POLYGON ((-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.33773...
#> LINESTRING (-76.00897 36.3196, -76.01735 36.337...
pt <- st_cast(st_geometry(nc)[[4]], "POINT")
#> Warning: point from first coordinate only
## st_sfc(cast_all(pt))  ## Error: cannot create MULTIPOLYGON from POINT
st_sfc(lapply(c("POINT", "MULTIPOINT"), function(x) st_cast(pt, x)))
#> Geometry set for 2 features
#> Geometry type: GEOMETRY
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: -76.00897 ymin: 36.3196 xmax: -76.00897 ymax: 36.3196
#> CRS:           NA
#> POINT (-76.00897 36.3196)
#> MULTIPOINT ((-76.00897 36.3196))
s = st_multipoint(rbind(c(1,0)))
st_cast(s, "POINT")
#> Warning: point from first coordinate only
#> POINT (1 0)
# https://github.com/r-spatial/sf/issues/1930:
pt1 <- st_point(c(0,1))
pt23 <- st_multipoint(matrix(c(1,2,3,4), ncol = 2, byrow = TRUE))
d <- st_sf(geom = st_sfc(pt1, pt23))
st_cast(d, "POINT") # will not convert the entire MULTIPOINT, and warns
#> Warning: point from first coordinate only
#> Simple feature collection with 2 features and 0 fields
#> Geometry type: POINT
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: 0 ymin: 1 xmax: 1 ymax: 2
#> CRS:           NA
#>          geom
#> 1 POINT (0 1)
#> 2 POINT (1 2)
st_cast(d, "MULTIPOINT") %>% st_cast("POINT")
#> Simple feature collection with 3 features and 0 fields
#> Geometry type: POINT
#> Dimension:     XY
#> Bounding box:  xmin: 0 ymin: 1 xmax: 3 ymax: 4
#> CRS:           NA
#>          geom
#> 1 POINT (0 1)
#> 2 POINT (1 2)
#> 3 POINT (3 4)
`